Read online Strukturwandel der Öffentlichkeit Untersuchungen zu einer Kategorie der bürgerlichen Gesellschaft AUTHOR Jürgen Habermas –

Once an authentic voice publicity into a easily manipulable form of false consciousness However not all is completely bleak for Habermas postulates a future where rational consensus can return And while this may seem like ust a fig leaf of hope perhaps it is all we can wish for in our debased times Second Review Habermas presents a strong case for understanding the history of the public sphere tied primarily to the interests of a bourgeois reading class during the Liberal era roughly mid 18th 10th centuries evolving out of a coffeehouse and salon culture and then mutating into different forms that eroded the rational critical aspect of the public sphere while and by expanding democratic political participationWhat Habermas means by the public sphere is a RATIONAL CRITICAL SPACE WHERE EDUCATED AND PROPERTIED WHICH WERE critical space where educated and propertied which were universally the okay yes its dense and wordy and translated from german but it kind of is like a political sociology epic poem smash together my high school modern european history class from high school with my freshman year college political philosophy course with the word bourgeois sprinkled throughout and you get a flavor its fun to watch the public sphere evolve from feudalism to high industrial capitalism era i m sure i didnt glean whole swaths of it but what i did get i enjoyed This is the ur text of publics theory I m glad I read it like m glad when I eat healthy food Retold in fairy tale language for a class assignmentIn distant past there existed a feudal society and in this society there was not yet a public sphere In fact public referred to nobility and everyone else was common 6 However with the rise of capitalism and the bourgeois class came the commercial trade in news 15 and a public sphere began to emerge between the private sphere of life and the government 23 This public sphere was composed of the bourgeoisie mostly male property owners who used reason to debate public issues 27 29 In western Europe and America these citizens engaged in dialogue in coffee shops newspapers and letters that is they debated in largely private spaces that created publics Public opinion began to develop but this wasn t the public opinion we conceive of today instead it was formed through public debate not through polling or other modern mechanisms 66An aim of the public sphere was to abolish the domination of the state and constitutional governments were set up to connect the law to public opinion 81 82 A central value of the bourgeois public sphere was inclusiveness that as the bourgeoisie grew so too would access to the public sphere However as the public enlarged public opinion changed from the result of ongoing dialogue to a coercive force 133 This is largely because as the liberal state became a welfare state it encroached on the private lives of people or stateized society 142 the public sphere became less politicized 140 In part this was caused as economic struggles became political struggles and the state began to protect families and individuals through education workers rights laws and welfare 155 Consumer culture also arose so that a debating public sphere was replaced by an advertising public sphere public debate became administered and consumed 164 The state began to address its citizens like consumers 195 Public opinion and propaganda began to be used in order to gain good will and ustify legislation 177 The public sphere became refeudalized by the state and others looking to gain publicityThe bourgeois public sphere has since passed away and in its stead we have the modern notions of public opinion and publicity as well as private individuals not engaged in a public rational debate Good bye dear bourgeois public sphere You are missed. Legitimation and communication foreshadowed in this lucid study of the origins nature and evolution of public opinion in democratic societie.

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The thing that I don t understand about this book is how Habermas spends the last hundred pages of it constantly referring back to a previously existing public sphere and analyzing the conseuences of its loss after spending the first half of the book seemingly making clear that there never was a fully functioning public sphere in the strict sense he analyzes how the Greeks and the coffee houses and salons of the 18th century where only able to think of their interests as objectively general because the public spheres were small gatekept ponds of discussion composed of people who could only enjoy the supposed separation of their private lives from the public by virtue of their own domination of slaves the penurious masses women the patriachal domination of the conjugal family etc and that once you scratched this surface as happened in the 19th century it was revealed to be ideology and one group s interests rather than a general interest In other words s interests rather than a general interest In other words only ever appeared to be a public sphere because of its unacknowledged reliance on a social hegemony that was simply taken for granted It seems to me that the fully functional public sphere Habermas laments losing never actually existed beyond the mythological form on which democracy is predicted Writing a summary of this book as a fairy tale as another reviewer has done seems spot on Habermas you re a helluva humanist thinker I can t complain about the man s motives this is the sort of ualitative commentary that stands on its own merits rather than feeling like the speculations of some dude in a bourgeois university position in Paris or New YorkBut when he tries to claim that the public sphere has degenerated from its role in the early capitalist era I have to uestion Habermas Work To What Extent Did To what extent did public sphere play a role in the expansion of ustice and to what extent did it simply protect its own neck Looking for a Golden Age is almost always a bad idea and I m afraid Habermas slips into this trap His analysis of how consumers receive rather than debate culture remains provocative however If this wasn t assigned reading I probably would ve enjoyed this much that or I would ve never picked it up I m glad it s over anyways Several important influences on Habermas s work are evident Firstly he borrows many important terms and categories from Kant Hegel and Marx Many of his ways of thinking about the public sphere are explicitly Kantian and he develops Hegel s central category of civil society into the basis from which public opinion emerges Of these Kant is perhaps the greatest influence simply because for Habermas his work represents the fully developed theory of the public sphereThe Marxist cultural theory of the Frankfurt School is also an important influence particularly on the second part of the Structural TransformationThe Frankfurt School was a group of philosophers linked to the Institute of Social Research in Frankfurt active from the 1920s on Two of its most famous names were Max Horkheimer and Theodor Adorno The Frankfurt School adapted Marx s theories greatly in order to study modern culture and society They took the unorthodox view that the experience of totalitarianism in the Second World War showed that the lower classes or proletariat had become corrupted by mass culture They could no longer act as a revolutionary force Their pessimism about what social force might replace the proletariat increased as the twentieth century progressed Adorno is well known for his critiue of the modern culture industry which manipulated the public creating consumers of the mass media rather than critical readers Habermas draws on this savage criticism of modern society and culture in his treatment of advertising and th. This is Jürgen Habermas's most concrete historical sociological book and one of the key contributions to political thought in the postwar pe. .

E pressA personal influence was the German legal scholar Wolfgang Abendroth who supervised Habermas s original thesis at Marburg after it was rejected by Horkheimer and Adorno in Frankfurt Abendroth s work analyzed the relationship between the social welfare principle and the inherited structure of the German constitutional state He argued that the Federal German constitution aimed to extend the ideas of euality and welfare and that a socialist democratic state could emerge from its constitutional predecessor Habermas moved away from this concept of the development of states but acknowledges his debt to Abendroth in the dedidcation to the Structural TransformationHabermas s influence over other
writers is considerable 
is considerable has recently become evident in the English speaking world with the publication of a translation of the Structural Transformation An important collection of essays edited by Craig Calhoun see bibliography shows wide range of responses to his work scholars in English political theory and philosophy respond to Habermas in this volume Responses are so varied because so Many Different Elements Are Present In Habermas S Work Historians different elements are present in Habermas s work Historians the factual basis of many of his claims about the publishing industry about economic history and bourgeois culture More abstract theorists challenge his assumptions about a range of issues Feminist scholars for example argue that Habermas neglec Habermas bourgeois pubic sphere is a seminal contribution to the Frankfurt School Part historical overview think the Chartist Movement and the February Revolution part philosophical exploration everyone from Bayle to Hobbes to Rousseau to Locke part political science debate the social welfare state vs the liberal democracy Jurgen Habermas s The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere An Inuiry into a Category of Bourgeois Society delineates the outlines of the author s thesis with care and erudition leading to a work which eases its reader into a discussion of its main elements with rigorousness and supreme clarity Beginning with an initial Demarcation of a Type of Bourgeois Public Sphere the book goes on to outline the role the traditional bourgeois family had through its cultivation of interiority and concommitant engagement with the public sphere on informing and creating a rational critical informed analysis and dialogue with the political public sphere Delving deep into this area Habermas lucidly delineates the role in the critical 18th century that the middle class family with its development of literary engagement with the self and society had in creating the environment that made possible the great yet short lived existence of liberal democracy Moreover Habermas also dialectically describes the ideology of this period and its subseuent developments in a particularly enlightening discussion of thinkers as diverse as Marx Hobbes and Locke all through these introductory chapters the ideas are through these introductory chapters the ideas are with a lucidity and clearness that both goes far to make clear the sometimes obscuredifficult concepts involved as well as bring the reader along gently in almost a classically narrative sense Developing the history of the publicprivate sphere dialectic even Habermas also discusses the historical development of the ournal and newspaper discussing cogently how technological developments and the negative influence of capitalism weakened this once strong and vigorous voice of the informed public But perhaps the most compelling aspect of the work is saved for the end where Habermas acknowledging the transition from the Bourgeois state to the Social Welfare state outlines the growth of publicity and the public sphere in a world where public relations artifically molds what was. Riod It will be a revelation to those who have known Habermas only through his theoretical writing to find his later interests in problems of. Strukturwandel der Öffentlichkeit Untersuchungen zu einer Kategorie der bürgerlichen Gesellschaft

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